It is necessary to start the history of the development of sites from the beginning. The first site was created in May 1990 by Timothy John Bernes-Lee of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). It was located at info.cern.ch…
The first browser, also created by Timothy J. Bernes-Lee, could process only text information, so his site was purely text-based. To follow the links to other pages, it was necessary to enter the number indicated in square brackets in the line located at the bottom of the page.
You can see how it looked in the text browser simulator.
The first sites were text documents with links to other pages. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) did not yet exist and maintaining the sites of those times was still a challenge. If you needed to make the headers on your site blue, then you had to prescribe the color in the tag:
And so for each heading.
Tables were used to organize information on the sites.
There is support for displaying images on a page along with text. Mosaic is created – the first browser able to download images. Subsequently renamed to Netscape, will be the main competitor to Internet Explorer and hold the leadership in the browser market until 2000.
Microsoft launches its first website. In 2014, the developers restored the first version of this site:
This year, the first specifications of the CSS language appear, but it will take another 5 years before full use and support by browsers. In addition, in 1996, Macromedia Flash was released, which would later be bought by Adobe and became known as Adobe Flash. Flash will be the main technology for animation and video / audio on websites for many years to come.
The 1996 Artifact is a site based on the Space Jam movie. Just imagine, the resource is still active in its original form.
And in Russia this year the Rambler search engine appears
The search engine Yandex is presented to the general public in September 1997
September 4, 1998 Stanford students Sergey Brin and Larry Page launch Google
In the same year, the third version of the PHP language was released, which determined its modern look.
Microsoft releases Windows XP with built-in Internet Explorer 6 and takes the leading position in the browser market – 80% of Internet users use Internet Explorer 6.
This browser would later become a major headache for web developers, but at the time it had impressive support for CSS standards. The first sites to switch to CSS are starting to appear. One of such major resources is Wired magazine.
CMS WordPress is released. Originally designed for blogs, WordPress will become the most popular CMS in the world for both simple blogs and online stores. According to w3techs, 35% of all sites use WordPress.
On February 4, Mark Zuckerberg launches Facebook, which at that time was still called Thefacebook and was available only to students at Harvard University. The public version of the site for all Internet users will become available only two years later – in 2006.
In the same 2006, VKontakte will be launched, also at vkontakte.ru
Youtube appears. In those years, Flash Video technology was used in the development, which made it easy to upload videos up to 10 minutes long to the site.
At the Macworld Conference & Expo, Steve Jobs will present the iPhone with the first full-fledged mobile browser Safari. Previous mobile browsers changed the look of assets, Safari displayed a full site just like desktop browsers, allowing users to resize the display of sites. From this moment, the transition to mobile versions of sites begins.
Exit Google Chrome browser. Chrome is rapidly gaining popularity among users and web developers. As a result, it wins back the lead from Internet Explorer.
In the same year, the first version of HTML5 appears, which will later replace Flash.
Web developer and designer Ethan Marcotte suggested using the same content in layouts designed for each screen type, rather than dividing sites into mobile and desktop. This is how responsive website design is born.
Bootstrap framework exit. It was originally developed as an internal library for Twitter, but was soon released to the public domain. Today, the most popular framework for front-end sites, which made it possible to speed up the development of layout of resources.
Microsoft introduces Modern Design based on flat design. It instantly becomes a trend.
Basic principles of flat design:
- lack of unnecessary elements (shadows, textures, highlights, gradients);
- accurate work with fonts, emphasizing the importance of typography;
- emphasis on color – pure bright colors are used;
- minimalism – complex approaches to the rendering of elements are avoided.
Google unveils its Material Design system. Its basic principles:
- tactile surfaces – all elements are located on their layer of different heights, shadows are used, which gives depth;
- print design – the rules of print design come into force: each element is emphasized, the hierarchy of the interface is indicated;
- deliberate animation, which should be informative, expressive and focus only on important elements, without distracting from the main action;
- responsive design – Material Design should work on all kinds of screens.
At the end of this year, HTML5 is published, and it is finally easier for developers to work with video and audio on sites. The use of background videos on sites begins.
The trend for parallax effects is gaining popularity: when scrolling the page, objects in the background in perspective move more slowly than objects in the foreground.
A stunning example of working with parallax effects can be viewed on the website dedicated to the series “The Walking dead”:
Adobe announces the end of 2020 for the death of Flash technology. All sites are moving to HTML5.
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